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Inclusive Astronomy: The Nashville Recommendations

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AAS Council has formally endorsed the Inclusive Astronomy Vision Statement below, and has endorsed the use of this wiki as a mechanism for the community to engage with te recommendations. See: https://aas.org/media/press-releases/aas-endorses-vision-statement-inclusive-astronomy

Executive Summary

In June 2015, 160 astronomers, sociologists, policy makers and community leaders convened the first Inclusive Astronomy meeting at Vanderbilt University, in Nashville, TN. The goal of this meeting was to discuss the issues affecting people of color; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, genderqueer/genderfluid, agender, intersex, queer, questioning, or asexual (LGBTIQA*) people; people with disabilities; women; and everyone who holds more than one of these underrepresented identities in the astronomical community. A key focus of this meeting was examination of issues of intersectionality: the well-established conceptualization that racism, sexism, heterosexism, transphobia, and ableism are often linked (e.g., that women of color are faced with the intersection of racism and sexism).

The following recommendations emerged as some of the first steps towards our shared goals, through the synthesis of prior work1 ,2 ,3 ,4 . Women of color in astronomy and astrophysics. Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia, National Academies Press, Washington D.C. , input from community members, consultation with expert practitioners, and discussions and workshops during the conference itself. All guidelines and recommendations in this document should be interpreted in a way that benefits historically underrepresented groups.

The recommendations presented here cover the four broad topical areas that the conference addressed, namely:

1) Removing barriers to access - This topical area addresses academic barriers to educational access, such as the use of GRE scores in admissions decisions, financial barriers to graduate school application, stereotype threat, and accessibility issues that impede the ability of all students to directly participate in learning environments.

2.) Creating inclusive climates - In order to maintain diversity at astronomical institutions, it is necessary that the environment be inclusive. This topical area addresses microaggressions, how to honor diversity without tokenization, effective and accessible teaching methods, and effective mentoring.

3.) Improving inclusion and access to power, policy, and leadership - This topical area provides astronomers with strategies on how to play a role in decisions affecting the astronomical community and how people in power can be more inclusive in their decision making.

4.) Establishing a community of inclusive practice - This topical area provides techniques for astronomers to take active rather than passive measures to ensure that their groups, events and institutions are inclusive.

This is a living document. This set of recommendations was compiled as a product of the inaugural Inclusive Astronomy meeting, and builds upon numerous concurrent sets of recommendationsError: Empty footnote,Error: Empty footnote,Error: Empty footnote,Error: Empty footnote These recommendations are imperfect and incomplete, and should continue to be expanded, revised, and critiqued with significant input from the astronomical community, especially the marginalized groups mentioned above, ideally at future Inclusive Astronomy meetings. The goal is to act as a roadmap for equity and inclusion in astronomy.

How to engage with this document: The recommendations are described in increasing detail as one proceeds through the document. Below we list the codes used to identify key participants/stakeholders affected by each recommendation and the estimated timescale for implementing them. Summary tables describing each recommendation in addition to their intended goals are listed and are broken down by implementation timescale. These summaries are intended to inform the overall “spirit” of the recommendations for a given topical area. Immediately following are specific, actionable recommendations that undergird the summary tables, which are designed for implementation by a variety of stakeholders on the prescribed timescales.

Acknowledgements

The organizers of the inaugural Inclusive Astronomy conference wish to acknowledge generous financial support from the National Science Foundation, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Associated Universities Inc., the American Astronomical Society, Vanderbilt University, and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program. Furthermore, we wish to thank those involved at every level of conception, planning and execution of the conference and these recommendations.

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Vision Statement

Statement of the problem

The demographics of our nation are changing, but professional Astronomy is not keeping pace. Only 2.1% of astronomers identify as Black or African-American and 3.2% as Hispanic, Latina/o, or of Spanish origin and extremely few are Native or indigenous (AIP, 2014). Disappointingly, these numbers for Physics and Astronomy have remained essentially constant between 2004 and 2012. This underrepresentation is most acute in leadership roles and on the key committees that shape the future of our field.

This underrepresentation for people of color is reminiscent of that experienced by women in decades past, and this gives cause for hope. White women have made great progress in Astronomy since the 1992 Baltimore Charter5 , owing in large part to the courageous leadership of those women and their allies who rallied the community and organized action, including the 1992 Baltimore Women in Astronomy meeting, the 2003 Pasadena Women in Astronomy II meeting, and the 2009 Goddard Women in Astronomy meeting. While the accomplishments of women continue to be systematically undervalued and they remain underrepresented in senior leadership positions, the gains made over the past 25 years served as inspiration for an inaugural Inclusive Astronomy 2015 meeting in Nashville, focusing not only on women but on all underrepresented individuals.
There is little data published on people with disabilities or lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, genderqueer/genderfluid, agender, intersex, queer, questioning, or asexual (LGBTIQA*) individuals in Astronomy, but studies in other STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) fields point to negative experiences and outcomes for these groups. In one study, LGBT professionals in STEM and military-related federal agencies were found to be more underrepresented and report more negative outcomes in workplace experience than those in non-STEM agencies, despite federal protections and formalized advancement procedures. LGBTIQA* scientists are far less likely to be open about their sexual and gender orientation than in the wider population, a situation linked to higher rates of anxiety, depression, and burnout,. White women have made great progress in Astronomy since the 1992 Baltimore Charter, but their accomplishments are systematically undervalued, and they are still underrepresented in senior leadership.

Much of the work toward equity and inclusion in Astronomy has focused on single dimensions of identity. However, a one-dimensional approach leaves behind people with more than one marginalized identity. Intersectionality6 is the well-established concept that different forms of discrimination intersect for people with multiple marginalized identities; identity and oppression are matrices, not scalars. But the significant underrepresentation of individuals with particular intersectional identities can magnify marginalization with the additional challenges of isolation and lack of common voices for advocacy. For example, in 2012, there were fewer than 75 faculty members in Physics or Astronomy in the United States who are both female and African-American or Hispanic7 .

There are little data available on the numbers or experiences of persons with disabilities in astronomy, but anecdotal reports make clear that people with disabilities still experience significant lack of access to both physical spaces and to the tools of the profession. Similarly, there are little data published on LGBTIQA*8 individuals in Astronomy, but studies in other STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) fields point out negative experiences and outcomes for these groups. In one study, LGBT professionals in STEM and military-related federal agencies were found to be more underrepresented and report more negative outcomes in workplace experience than those in non-STEM agencies, despite federal protections and formalized advancement procedures9 . LGBTIQA* scientists are far less likely to be open about their sexual and gender orientation than are individuals in the wider population, a situation linked to higher rates of anxiety, depression, and burnout10 ,11 . Asian Americans in Astronomy are often overlooked in discussions of inclusivity, but data highlight pervasive stereotyping and reveal that Asian Americans are disproportionately excluded from leadership positions12
.
As these examples suggest, the ongoing underrepresentation of individuals from various groups is not just a problem of experiences and barriers within our profession. We live in societies that host systemic biases and power differences based on race, gender identity, sexual orientation, ability status, and class. As we work for equity and inclusion in our field, we cannot ignore the broader society and the negative impacts it produces on current and potential colleagues from historically marginalized groups. We can repair the “leaky pipeline” within our profession only by also understanding the broader society within which our profession operates, the lived experiences of our students and colleagues when they are “out in the world”, and the biases that we all bring with us from the broader society into the places where astronomers work and learn. Indeed, most astronomers who are some combination of female, LGBTIQA*, disabled, or a person of color, can tell stories of overt discrimination, microaggressions, and hostile climate; the literature tells that same story 13 ,14 ,15 ,16 ,17 ,18 The situation is clear: Astronomy must become more inclusive.

Creating a more inclusive field is not just the right thing to do: The current lack of diversity and inclusivity within Astronomy harms our profession. Research shows that diversity leads to greater innovation, more creative thinking, and higher quality science19 ,20 ,21 ,22 ,23 . The breadth of knowledge and experience brought by people of color, women, LGBTIQA* people, people with disabilities, other traditionally marginalized individuals - and most particularly, anyone who shares more than one of these identities - is necessary to achieve our full potential for discovery and exploration, and to recruit and retain the many creative minds we need to solve fundamental questions about the Universe. Making Astronomy more inclusive and thus diverse is also necessary for maintaining the appreciation of our field by the increasingly diverse public who fund our exploration.

Our vision: Astronomy can and must become inclusive.

We believe that people of all races, genders, sexual orientations, and physical abilities are capable of doing excellent science and shaping the future of our discipline. We know that identity is intersectional, and we see connections among barriers facing communities of color, women, people with disabilities, and LGBTIQA* people in science. We believe in equal opportunity. We share a vision of a more inclusive, more productive profession. We know that true inclusion and diversity require hard work from individual astronomers, organizations, and our profession as a whole to re-examine our professional culture, modify our existing practices, and remove barriers to inclusion. We assert that progress can and should be measured, and should be pursued with the same zeal as other strategic scientific goals. We have faith that we all - as colleagues and as a profession - can learn and improve.

We invite all to join in the hard work of creating an Inclusive Astronomy by endorsing this vision and by committing to implement the Nashville Recommendations for Inclusive Astronomy.

A Pathway to Endorsement

The Inclusive Astronomy recommendations represent a suite of principles, policies and actions that are meant to transform our community into one that is truly inclusive and diverse. Because these recommendations vary in scale, scope and target, we recommend the following steps be taken toward community and institutional endorsement and implementation of those specific recommendations deemed most appropriate by a given institution or entity:

  • AAS endorses the Inclusive Astronomy vision statement, and encourages the astronomical community to review the full set of Nashville Recommendations and to create implementation plans as appropriate at relevant institutional levels.
  • AAS provides an online framework to host the recommendations, findings, institutional commitments, and accomplishment of those commitments, to be managed jointly by members of the Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy (CSWA), Committee on the Status of Minorities in Astronomy (CSMA), Committee on Sexual-orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA), and the Working Group on Accessibility and Disability (WGAD).
  • Following the AAS creation of online platform above, individual institutions and organizations use the online platform to publicly endorse the Inclusive Astronomy vision statement and to commit to specific short-term, medium-term, and long-term recommendations most relevant to each organization or institution.
  • Institutions commit to regularly report back to the community, including actions taken, status of plans, and pathways for successful implementation. These updates should be shared via the AAS online framework (see #2 above).
  • AAS and its Committees (CSWA, CSMA, SGMA and WGAD) establish a site visit program for participating institutions to voluntarily and confidentially assess implementation of inclusivity plans and identify areas where further work is needed.
  • AAS supports sessions at its annual meetings to further develop recommendations and assessments, and to share experiences of implementation.
  • National Research Council (NRC) inclusively empanels diverse individuals — including individuals with appropriate expertise in diversity and inclusions issues — for the 2020 Decadal Survey. The community develops recommendations (i.e., not merely findings as in previous decadal surveys) for inclusion in the 2020 Decadal Survey that address needed policies, funding, and ways to increase diversity at leadership levels, that can be acted upon by policy makers and funding agencies.


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Recommendations Summary Tables

Scope of implementation
Short Term is 1-3 years.
Medium Term is 3-5 years.
Long-term is more than 5 years.

Removing Barriers to Access: Recommendations Summary Table


Context: must enable people to enter the field so that we can then support, mentor and promote them within the inclusive environments that we create, and into the leadership and power structures of the field. Our ultimate goal is a fully inclusive field. This is necessary but not sufficient: removing the barriers to access will not by itself create an inclusive environment; we also need to change the culture of our field and making sure that people with marginalized identities are included in our field’s leadership. The following table summarizes the full recommendations.
Core Goals:

  1. Make graduate admissions fair.
  2. Eliminate barriers in pre-/early-college access to astronomy.
  3. Eliminate practices in hiring and promotion that are discriminatory.
  4. Ensure that astronomical institutions, facilities and data are accessible to all.
Number Short term goals/actions Target stakeholders
RBA1S Develop and deploy best-practice, research-based tools for evaluating graduate school applications holistically and equitably: Eliminate the General and/or Physics Graduate Record Exams (GRE) for graduate school admission (see the AAS statement of endorsement), and integrate holistic measures of scientific talent into graduate admissions procedures (see, e.g., the Fisk-Vanderbilt Bridge Program toolkit for sample protocols and rubrics). Universities, departments
RBA2S Make graduate school applications affordable: Reduce or eliminate graduate school application fees. Universities
RBA3S Develop, publicize, and follow clear criteria for hiring and evaluations. De-emphasize student teaching evaluations as they have been shown to be systematically biased. Make hires in broad areas of research topics. Develop a common application service for job applications to reduce workload on applicants. Universities, public and private research organizations, departments
RBA4S Recognize disability issues at the same level as minority & gender issues. AAS and other professional organizations should create a committee or working group to advise on the status of astronomers with disabilities, with disabled students and astronomers in leadership positions on these committees. Professional associations
RBA0S Other short-term recommendations.
Number Medium term goals/actions Target stakeholders
RBA1M Implement and support bridge programs and other collaborations in partnership with minority serving institutions. Universities, funding agencies, departments
RBA2M Develop and provide astronomical information using multiple modes of access, with each mode being as accessible as possible. Publishers, universities, public and private research organizations, departments, individuals
RBA3M Make astronomical data, software, and publications open access. Publishers, observatories, public and private research organizations, funding agencies, individuals
RBA0M Other medium-term recommendations.
Number Long term goals/actions Target stakeholders
RBA1L Research and develop methods and assistive technology to make astronomy accessible to disabled students and astronomers. Funding agencies, universities, public and private research organizations
RBA2L Ensure that all facilities are 100% wheelchair accessible. All institutions, government
RBA3L Allow undocumented students access to undergraduate and graduate programs, and provide financial aid for these students. Universities
RBA0L Other long-term recommendations.

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Creating Inclusive Environments: Recommendations Summary Table

Context: It is essential that the places we work and interact are spaces that are inclusive of a broad range of ideas, identities and abilities. This includes the social ecosystem - eliminating discrimination and harassment and assuring inclusivity and healthy work-life balance - and the physical ecosystem - making sure all facilities are accessible to all people. An inclusive environment includes a framework for support, through mentoring, networking and education.
Core Recommendations:

  1. End harassment in and around astronomical workplaces.
  2. Ensure access to quality, affordable health care.
  3. Facilitate work-life balance, family friendly policies, and a welcoming environment.
  4. Establish robust data collection and reporting to assess and monitor progress, and ensure that those procedures are inclusive.
  5. Provide effective mentoring and networking opportunities.
  6. Adopt teaching practices that support marginalized students.


Because of the large number of specific, granular recommendations received in this area, the table below does not represent a prioritized or comprehensive summary of the recommendations but rather a representative preview of the full recommendations presented later in this report.

Number Short term goals/actions Target stakeholders
CIE1S Adopt and publicise clear anti-harassment policies and procedures, including highly transparent reporting avenues. Universities, public and private research organizations, departments, leadership, professional organizations
CIE2S Facilitate name and gender changes on organizational records and establish a “preferred name” policy. Universities, public and private research organizations, departments, leadership
CIE3S Schedule conferences, seminars, and meetings at family-friendly times and be flexible when scheduling events. Professional Societies, funding agencies, public and private research organizations, universities, departments
CIE4S Establish a student-centered matrix of support and mentoring for students and postdocs that does not rely solely on the advisor. Universities, departments
CIE5S Establish an inclusive teaching practice by recognizing students' needs and resources (e.g., provide materials in multiple formats, accommodate personal conflicts). Universities, departments, Instructors
CIE6S Encourage and provide opportunities for instructors,potential instructors, and teaching assistants to learn new pedagogical and assessment techniques (i.e. workshops, mentoring for teaching). Departments, professional societies, funding agencies(?)
CIE0S Other short-term recommendations.
Number Medium term goals/actions Target stakeholders
CIE1M Increase networking opportunities for minorities,other marginalized students, and early career professionals. Professional societies
CIE2M Establish identity support networks within and across STEM departments and connect to institution-level resources. Departments, universities, public and private research organizations,
CIE3M Provide incentives and opportunities for instructors to adopt and develop research-based inclusive learning practices. Departments, Universities, professional societies
CIE4M Assure that your classroom environment meets or exceeds ADA compliance. Work with students and abilities office to obtain and implement accommodations. Universities, departments, instructors
CIE0M Other medium-term recommendations.
Number Long term goals/actions Target stakeholders
CIE1L Develop and support astronomy education research groups who investigate teaching and learning in astronomy through the lens of inclusivity and intersectionality. Universities, departments, leadership
CIE2L Provide three to six months of paid parental leave at all career stages. Leave must include adoption and fostering, and must be available to parents who did not give birth. Create avenue for supplemental insurance fund to support family leave time for astronomers with insufficient benefits in their home institutions. Universities, public and private research organizations
CIE3L Support astronomers from small institutions or non-academic organizations who may not have access to the same support network as those at larger institutions. Funding agencies, public and private research organizations, professional societies
CIE0L Other long-term recommendations.

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Inclusion and Access to Power, Policy, and Leadership: Recommendations Summary Table


Context: An inclusive community requires inclusive leadership, with decision-making roles open and available to anyone interested in pursuing these roles. Informing the community of leadership opportunities, responsibilities and expectations, in addition to making leadership roles accessible makes for both an inclusive culture and more effective leadership structures.

  1. Inclusive Diversity (gender, ethnic, racial, geographical, institutional, etc.) should be made a priority (not just a goal) in all areas of policy making and leadership roles throughout the astronomy community.
  2. Future decadal surveys should address concerns of diversity in participation, leadership and policy making as part of recommended actions.
  3. Funding (e.g., grants) should also be tied to metrics and progress on the inclusion of underrepresented, under-resourced and disenfranchised groups.
  4. Astronomical researchers should acknowledge the responsibility to be ‘good citizens’ in areas where research intersects concerns in the larger society.
Number Short term goals/actions Target stakeholders
PPL1S Increase equitable access to policy making and leadership roles; deliberately reach out to and involve individuals from across the entire astronomical community, especially underrepresented and under-resourced researchers and institutions, in policy and leadership roles. Agencies, universities, public and private research organizations, Individuals, professional associations
PPL2S Astronomy communities should consider, develop, and test policies in mentorship/apprenticeship, graduate admissions, and hires that could have a positive effect on current diversity imbalances, and can become models of action for the decadal survey. Individuals, universities, public and private research organizations
PPL3S Funded policies that expand diversity in the field should be put in place and supported in the community. Agencies, universities, public and private research organizations, professional associations
PPL0S Other short-term recommendations.
Number Medium term goals/actions Target stakeholders
PPL1M Diversity (gender, ethnic, racial, geographical, institutional, etc.) is made a priority (not just a goal) on (e.g.,review, policy, hiring, etc.) panels and committees. Agencies, universities, public and private research organizations,individuals, professional associations
PPL2M Diversity and intersectional (i.e., gender + institutional, etc.) demographic data of committee and panel makeup, as well as for the larger community, are collected and reviewed for problems and progress. Agencies, universities, public and private research organizations, professional associations
PPL3M The decadal survey should address issues of policy making and leadership diversity imbalances as recommendations that can be acted upon by policy makers. Universities, public and private research organizations, individuals
PPL4M Breaches of ethics, be they conflict of interest, citations, data usage, bullying or harassment, are taken seriously and addressed within the astronomy community. Agencies,universities, public and private research organizations, individuals, professional associations
PPL0M Other medium-term recommendations.
Number Long term goals/actions Target stakeholders
PPL1L Departments, committees and science & policy panels that are representative of the astronomical community that they represent. Agencies, universities, public and private research organizations, individuals, professional associations
PPL2L Astronomical researchers recognize and acknowledge responsibility to be ‘good citizens’ in areas where their research interacts with concerns in the the larger society. Individuals, agencies, universities, public and private research organizations, professional associations
PPL3L Funding of research (e.g., grants) is also tied to metrics on diversity and inclusion of underrepresented and disenfranchised groups. Agencies, universities, public and private research organizations, professional associations
PPL0L Other long-term recommendations.

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Establishing a Community of Inclusive Practice: Recommendations Summary Table

Context: Developing and maintaining an inclusive community of astronomy requires a sustained practice of education, engagement and action, and hence establishing a community of inclusive practice. This includes understanding the history of oppression against marginalized groups in your culture, learning about best practices to discuss and confront discriminatory behavior, practicing active allyship, and establishing mechanisms of accountability. Establishing inclusivity plans for your organization is an example of inclusivity practice.

  1. Learn about the history of oppression against marginalized groups in your own culture and the culture you are in (they may not be the same).
  2. Practice active allyship.
  3. Learn and use best practices for discussing racism and its intersections.
  4. Understand and reduce the negative impact of power imbalances.
  5. Implement accountability practices, and respond promptly when astronomers engage in racism, sexism, heterosexism, cissexism, and ableism.
  6. Perform self-audits on equity, inclusion, and accessibility and develop short-term and long-term institutional plans.
Number Short term goals/actions Target stakeholders
CIP1S Practice active allyship: Do not assume because you “want to” be an ally that you are. “Ally” is not a permanent designation. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP2S Recognize there are multiple axes of identity. Different marginalized groups may need different forms of active allyship at different times. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP3S Do your homework. Educate yourself on the extensive history of oppression against marginalized groups. Individual astronomers
CIP4S Challenge harmful behaviors like harassment and microaggressions. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP5S Act proactively as well as reactively. Do not wait for a problem to arise to attempt to fix it. Individual astronomers, leadership, departments, universities, public and private research organizations, professional associations, policy makers, funding agencies
CIP6S Engage movements of like-minded individuals at your institution, in your community and online. Research thoroughly before creating new groups to avoid erasure of previous efforts. Individual astronomers
CIP0S Other short-term recommendations.
Number Medium term goals/actions Target stakeholders
CIP1M Learn and use best practices for discussing racism and its intersections. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP2M Reduce the negative impact of power imbalances in a given situation. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP3M Speak to your own experience. Individual astronomers
CIP4M Use “both/and” rather than “either/or” thinking to allow space for the development of more options. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP5M Use inclusive language. Individual astronomers
CIP6M Recognize that intent does not equal impact. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP7M Allow space for unexpected responses. Individual astronomers
CIP8M Lean into discomfort. Individual astronomers
CIP9M Respond constructively when someone tells you that your words and actions are harmful to others. Individual astronomers, leadership
CIP0M Other medium-term recommendations.
Number Long term goals/actions Target stakeholders
CIP1L Implement accountability procedures. Universities, departments, public and private research organizations, funding agencies
CIP2L Develop long-term institutional plans for equity and inclusion, which should be public and include annual progress reports on organizational accessibility. Universities, public and private research organizations, departments, public and private research organizations, funding agencies
CIP3L Respond promptly when astronomers publicly engage in racism, sexism, heterosexism, cissexism, and/or ableism. Professional organizations, leadership, individuals
CIP4L Host departmental site visits that gauge the climate for people with one or more marginalized identities. Departments, public and private research organizations
CIP5L Perform accessibility self-audits. Develop short-term and long-term plans to make institutions accessible. Universities, public and private research organizations, departments
CIP0L Other long-term recommendations.

 Note

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Bibliography

Additional Resources

Astronomy Community Resources

Policy Recommendations and Best Practices

Diversity Stakeholders / Communities of Support

Data and Research

Additional Resources


Appendix: Common Acronyms

AAS: American Astronomical Society
AISES: American Indian Science and Engineering Society
APS: American Physical Society
CSMA: AAS Committee on the Status of Minorities in Astronomy
CSWA: AAS Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy
GRE: Graduate Record Exam
HBCU: Historically Black Colleges and Universities
HSI: Hispanic-serving Institution
LGBTIQA*: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, Questioning, Agender, and other gender identities
MSI: Minority Serving Institution
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSBP: National Society of Black Physicists
NSHP: National Society of Hispanic Physicists
NSF: National Science Foundation
POC: People/Person of Color
SGMA: AAS Committee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities (formerly WGLE)
TCU: Tribal Colleges and Universities
TWI: Traditionally White Institutions
WGLE: Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (2012-2015.  Replaced by SGMA in 2015)

Footnotes

1 The Baltimore Charter for Women in Astronomy (1993). Retrieved from: http://www.stsci.edu/stsci/meetings/WiA/BaltoCharter.html
2 Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy (2005). Retrieved from: http://www.aas.org/cswa/pasadenarecs.html
3 Supporting LGBT+ Physicists & Astronomers: Best Practices for Academic Departments (2014). Retrieved from: http://lgbtphysicists.org/files/BestPracticesGuide.pdf
4 Norman, D., Isler, J., Oluseyi, H., Morrison, N., Simpson, C., Trouille, L. (2013)
5 The Baltimore Charter for Women in Astronomy (1993). Retrieved from: http://www.stsci.edu/stsci/meetings/WiA/BaltoCharter.html
6 Kimberle Crenshaw, “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics”, The University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989, 139-168
7 Rachel Ivie, Garrett Anderson, & Susan White, "AIP Focus on African Americans & Hispanics among Physics & Astronomy Faculty", AIP Statistical Research Center, July 2014 http://www.aip.org/sites/default/files/statistics/faculty/africanhisp-fac-pa-123.pdf
8 Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, non-binary, genderqueer/genderfluid, agender, intersex, queer, questioning, or asexual. The asterisk is commonly-used to represent individuals with non-conforming gender identities.
9 Cech, E. A. (2015, June). LGBT Professionals’ Workplace Experiences in STEM-Related Federal Agencies. Paper presented at 2015 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Seattle, Washington. 10.18260/p.24431
10 Yoder J. B. & Mattheis A. "Queer in STEM: Workplace experiences reported in a national survey of LGBTQA individuals in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers." Journal of Homosexuality, 2014
11 Juster R. P., Smith N. G., Ouellet É., Sindi S., Lupien S. J. 2013, “Sexual orientation and disclosure in relation to psychiatric symptoms, diurnal cortisol, and allostatic load.” Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(2), 103-116
12 Ruttimann, J., "Breaking Through the "Bamboo Ceiling" for Asian American Scientists." Science, May, 2009. DOI: 10.1126/science.opms.r0900072
13 Cech, E. A. & Waidzunas, T. J. (2011). Navigating the heteronormativity of engineering: the experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students. Engineering Studies, 3(1), 1-24
14 Rankin, S. R., Reason, R. D. (2005). Differing perceptions: How students of color and white students perceive campus climate for underrepresented groups. Journal of College Student Development, 46(1), 43-61
15 Patridge, E.V., Barthelemy, R. S., Rankin, S. R. (2014). Factors impacting the academic climate for LGBQ STEM faculty. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 20(1), 75-98
16 Morris, L .K., Daniel, L. G, (2008). Perceptions of a chilly climate: Differences in traditional and non-traditional majors for women. Research in Higher Education, 49(3), 256-273
17 Hedrick, B., Dizen, M., Collins, K., Evans, J., Grayson, T. (2010). Perceptions of college students with and without disabilities and effects of STEM and non-STEM enrollment on student engagement and institutional involvement. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 23(2), 129-136.
18 Johnson, D. R. (2012). Campus racial climate perceptions and overall sense of belonging among racially diverse women in STEM majors. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2), 336-346.
19 Antonio, A. L., Chang, M. J., Hakuta, K., Kenny, D. A., Levin, S., Milem, J. F. (2004). Effects of racial diversity on complex thinking in college students. Psychological Science, 15(8), 507-510
20 Sommers, S. R. (2007). Race and the decision making of juries. Legal and Criminal Psychology, 12, 171-187
21 Phillips, K. W., Apfelbaum, E. P. (2012), Delusions of Homogeneity? Reinterpreting the Effects of Group Diversity, in Margaret A. Neale, Elizabeth A. Mannix (ed.) Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research (Research on Managing Groups and Teams, Volume 15) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.185 - 207
22 Loyd, D. L., Wang, C., Phillips, K. W., & Lount, R. (2013). Social category diversity promotes pre-meeting elaboration: The role of relationship focus. Organization Science, 24, 757-772
23 Freeman, R. B., Huang, W. (2014). Strength in Diversity. Nature, 513, 305.



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